Category Archives: PowerShell

Microsoft Teams MessageCards

‘Sup PSHomies,

I was excited to give the MS Teams module a go! I was secretly hoping for a cmdlet to send messages to channels. Unfortunately no such luck… yet! If push comes to shove you can always take the Graph route! 😉

I posted the blog on social media and that generated some interesting ideas. Emotions and opinions varied quite a bit. Prateek raised an interesting question on whether slack would become obsolete in the near future. MS Teams is gaining momentum and it integrates nicely in Microsoft’s eco system, so why wouldn’t you use it? It doesn’t have to be black or white, use whatever adds value to your business I’d say!

This is where social media can be a treasure trove at times, got an interesting tip from Brett Miller on posting messages to channels using webhooks! Ah! the missing cmdlet I was hoping for! “So basically it’s just an Invoke-RestMethod?” Cool! I gave it a spin:


Nice! Hmmm… Webhooks eh? Sounds familiar… Where did I read about that? Ah yes! Stefan Stranger did a blog about that. To be honest, I did read his blog, but at that time I didn’t have access to Teams… 😉 Just follow his instructions and you’re golden!

Here’s when the fun really started! Come to find out that there’s a lot more you can post using the message card reference! There’s even a card playground where you can try out your message cards. It’s all JSON, no problem, we’ve got cmdlets for that.

There’s a whole design guide on Messagecards. Best of all it supports MarkDown format! I tried a sending a table but that didn’t work as planned.

Just imagine the automation possibilities here… I understand now why ChatOps is really taking off…

My first attempt at DSL

Looking at the MessageCard format I thought: “This would be interesting as a DSL (Domain Specific Language) implementation… Hmmm…” I’ve been meaning to look into DSL after reading Kevin Marquette’s blog series on the subject. Seems now is a good time as any to start! This is what I came up with so far… It’s a work in progress ( sharing is caring) , but it works!

And here’s the result:


I used the full card format as reference.  I realize that others in the community could easily knock this out the park. Maybe we can make this a community project? I would love to see what the possibilities are here…

Turns out not having a Send-TeamMessage wasn’t as painful as I thought it would be. Many ways to Rome…

Shout out to Brett & Stefan! Gotta love the PowerShell community!!!

Hope it’s worth something to you,




PSConfAsia 2017

I recently had the pleasure of presenting at in Singapore. This was my very first conference as a speaker! As a first time speaker a great way to get started.

Jaap Brasser approached me at PSConf.Eu about doing a session (or two) at At first I was hesitant…  me, a speaker… Hmmm… I need to think about… Let me get back to you on that… Jaap was clever enough to appease my ego, now how could I say no?

I decided to get out of my comfort zone and said yes, much to Jaap’s delight! Alright! Another PSConf, this time in Singapore, how cool is that!

So after I said yes I did some googling… Let’s see Singapore… Wait what? 12 Hours??? Oh boy… Flying isn’t really my favorite passtime…

ba plane

Hehe… Fortunately I had night flights so…

Singapore has my kinda weather, tropical! I came well prepared. Poor Rob Sewell was melting in Singapore. Transportation is awesome in Singapore. From and to the conference was about 1 SGD.

The organizers did an awesome job! Great location! I met up with old acquaintances and made some new ones!

Finally got to interact with David das Neves. I wanted to attend his session but I opted for Steve Hosking session on Graph. In case you missed it Graph is going to interconnect everything. Definitely have a look at it. I liked David’s approach on having a Class for different types of log format. So I asked him “Hey no  love for Robocopy?” Next thing I knew it was in it! You can read all about hereRaimund Andrée was also there. I told him how NTFSSecurity module saved me on quite a few occasions. He has some serious plans for the module on PowerShell core, so stay tuned!

Rick Taylor won a book on Windows PowerShell for Developers by Doug Finke! Rick was like: “Wait I know this guy!” So I said we need to take a pic featuring Doug’s book! :-). Max Trinidad is a great guy! Been in IT for some time and has loads and loads of skills and it definitely shows!

The keynote is always the highlight of the Conference. Angel Calvo delivered the keynote like a boss! How can I do the key note justice? It’s all about Digital Transformation.

Digital Transformation

Digital tranformation

This is something we all need to consider. It’s not a question of if but when and how. If you’re content with where you’re at right now then you will be obsolete in the near future. What I really appreciated, was the fact that Angel acknowledged that this change can be overwhelming, but it isn’t an all-or-nothing situation. Start where you can, with what you can and take it from there. This digital transformation may take you places you never thought possible. I spoke to Amanda Debler , her transformation has her working more with kurbernetes, how cool is that?

Azure is about adding value to your business

If you’re still under the impression that Azure is just for offloading servers to the cloud, you’re sorely mistaken. We got some excellent demos by Micheal Greene and Ravi Kiran Chintalapudi on Azure Management Services. Azure is about delivering value to your business. And what has value? Data! Lots and lots of it! Having your servers, application, services just to name a few in Azure, will give you the chance to transform metric and monitoring data into added value for your business. As an OPS guy I always thought of monitoring as a necessary evil. Ravi showed us how to manipulate Azure data that is at your deposition and make it valuable! That one server that isn’t patched adequately or that server that’s missing a configuration, the data is there, it’s up to you to turn that into valuable information.


Michael Greene’s demo on ChatOps blew my mind!


I’ve seen chatbots in action but this will take things to the next level! Here are a few links Michael shared to give you an idea where they’re heading:

PowerShell and the future

When Jeffrey Snover said that PowerShell is finished, I died a little inside. Fortunately I was better prepared this time around when Angel said the same 🙂 . PowerShell has gained critical mass. Moving forward, PowerShell Core is where all attention will be placed. Steve Lee had some interesting charts and number he pulled from GitHub (It’s all about data). Mark Kraus is the nr 1 contributor on GitHub! Michael Greene’s go-to PowerShell version is Core! Joey even had a demo on cross-platform administration starting a session on a Windows and Linux. Unfortunately Joey forget about the Timezone difference, so his servers were down.

Keynote conclusion


Pretty much sums it up, no need to reiterate… 🙂

Networking event

Conferences are a great way  to interact with the Microsoft Team and delegates. It was awesome meeting Michael Greene and Steve lee in the flesh! I decided on a different approach when it came to mingling. I wanted to connect on a personal level. I can always reach out when I’m working on something. So here I am sitting in an Irish pub in Singapore knocking over a few with Michael, Amanda, Jason and Max! I asked Michael  what his thoughts were on running Windows for Workgroup 3.11 in Azure… Hypothetically that is :-P. What followed was a lively discussion! Jason had some real great stories to tell! Max told us about his first job in IT back in ’78 when debugging was literally ‘debugging’. Amanda was like: “I wasn’t even born yet…”

Benjamin had Joey finish his demo in the pub. Joey’s demo didn’t go through because of timezone difference (His Azure Servers shutdown automatically after-hours), but Benjamin wasn’t haven’t that. Joey complied and did the demo in the pub, with all attending cheering him on like proper hooligans! For outsiders we may as well have been watching a football game.

I even have my own fan club!


Suresh follows my blog and was pretty excited to meet me! Lil’ ol’ me! Suresh made the 12 hour flight worth it! I enjoy meeting my PowerShell heroes in the flesh, I just never considered myself special… Thanks for the support!!! Appreciate it!

Slides & Code

Before I forget here’s the GitHub link to all my presentation slides and code. So Fabian Dibot was at my Infrastructure session and I almost didn’t recognize him! Both him and Mathias Jessen had fun sending twitter messages during my session 😛 . Tip: make sure you disable browser notification before starting you presentation… I know, a rookie mistake, you caught me guys… 😛

Bartek Bielawski was at my Dependencies session! That was a big honor for me! Bartek is the guy you go to when you’re really stuck! While doing my session I was trying to get a read on Bartek’s facial expression. At some point I could see him scanning the code… was that a smile? Ah! no comment whew! I couldn’t wait to ask him for feedback. Getting a compliment from Bartek on presentation preparation  & code definitely gave me a confidence boost! IMHO I enjoyed presenting this session the most. I did this as a flash session at one of our DuPSUG gatherings. I took a different route using AzureAD instead of plain ol’ AD and came across some fun stuff. AD and AzureAD have different parametersets 😉

I’m really glad I did the sessions. Milton Goh was hinting on a surprise next year? 🙂 If I’m fortunate to be asked next year, I won’t hesitate!

Thanks for a wonderful experience! I can’t wait to see where your Digital Transformation takes you!






Microsoft Teams cmdlets are here!

‘Sup PSHomies,

Microsoft Teams has released the long anticipated Teams module! And with that a great blog to get you started.

Microsoft Teams is Microsoft’s version of Slack (Ok, I oversimplified that… I know). I’ve been following MSTeams development with Graph Explorer for some time now (Something you should definitely look into).

So I followed the blog’s instructions and everything works as expected!

The cmdlets support the pipeline.  (Get-Command -Name <cmdlet>).Parameterset will get you an overview of what’s supported and/or mandatory. Generallyspeaking, GroupId is mandatory and accepted from the pipeline.

TeamChannel supports value from pipeline

Here’s some code to help test drive the cmdlets.

So one thing I was hoping for, was to have a cmdlet to post to TeamChannels. For now posting can be done using Graph beta support for teams. Looking forward to having cmdlets for posting as well (fingers crossed!). Before the cmdlets you needed to do some pre-configuration in order to post using Graph, so the cmdlets definitely makes that step easier!

Well that’s it in a nutshell, happy Testing

Hope it’s worth something to you,




Graph, the endpoint to end all endpoints

‘Sup PSHomies,

My first introduction to Graph was at the Microsoft Technical Summit here in the Netherlands at the RAI march 23,24 this year. It was actually the last session of the day. The intended audience was for developers… I thought to myself, why not? I might pick up a thing or two… It blew my mind!

Then at the PSConfEU at Hannover, Jeffrey Snover’s Keynote ‘State of Union’ really made me reassess my career, so much so that I left my previous employment of 23 years for a much smaller company, Methos! Methos is owned by Jeff Wouters aka “The scripting dutchman”. It’s like Jeffrey Snover said in his keynote: “With transformative change, you need to change the way you think about things.” Graph is one of those transformative thing… Here’s how I got started.

So Jeff came up with an idea:

Jeff : Say Urv, I got something I’d like you to look into…

Me: Sure, what’s up?

Jeff: Would it be possible to get a hierarchy of the entire company from Azure Active Directory?

Me: I don’t see why not?

Jeff: Once you have the data the next step is to visualize it!

Me: Like an organizational chart?

Jeff: Uhuh! (Grinning) Here’s a tip, look into Graph…

I should have known… 🙂 Now at Methos we don’t have an on-premise Active Directory so Azure AD it is. Now as part of my “transformative change” I asked for a Macbook pro. I thought: “Hey if you’re gonna go through the change (wait that doesn’t sound right, you know what I mean) might as well go big or go home! Jeff didn’t disagree, he only grinned and let out a subtle evil laugh… I got a sneaky suspicion that I’m in for a surprise… My other Transformative change: PowerShell Core!

I installed Azure CLI 2.0 as a first attempt. To get Azure AD users:

az ad user list

This gave me a JSON list with few attributes. Maybe I need to add a property list or something. Let do a quick help, Hmmm… Ok… Next approach.

Let’s install AADPreview Core. Say, Get-AzureADUser doesn’t have a -Properties attribute… Huh? So that’s why Jeff was grinning about… Well played Jeff…

So here’s the deal, I’m using PowerShell core, not all modules are applicable. The good thing is that I could login to Graph Explorer.  Graph explorer gives you the opportunity to explore the endpoint and browse around.

“Hey look at that, there’s a get manager query! Maybe there’s a way to get all the data and filter out what I need (Like I always do with PSCustomObject)”

I saw one of the examples use a $select option so I decided to give it a try.

$select=displayName, GivenName, surName, department, officeLocation, jobTitle, userPrincipalName, id, manager

I decided to give it a try. Ok that narrowed things down a bit still no manager in sight! Turns out manager is a special kind of property, a Navigation Property. You can extract it from the MetaData

$graphMetadata = [XML](Invoke-WebRequest -Uri '$metadata').Content
$userMetaData = $graphMetadata.Edmx.DataServices.Schema.EntityType.Where{ $_.Name -eq 'User' }


Ah, that’s why manager is omitted, it isn’t part of the collection! My next challenge was to retrieve the JSON payload. That’s where I ran into the accessToken dilemma.



From the online resources I inspected, authentication is the key to access (see what I did there?). I found Mark Kraus’s module PSMSGraph quite useful to follow his trail of thoughts. It didn’t work for me because I’m using PowerShell core. Now it’s time to read the document! When all else fails RTFM!

I ran into some snags with my application registration, so my next step was to reach out to the Graph team! They are on twitter just no tweets… yet! That got me in contact with Dmitry Pimenov, the PM of Microsoft Graph! I explained him my dilemma and he showed me an easy way to get the accesstoken for proto-type purposes. Finally! I can get some data to play with!

My first attempt was straight forward: get the user, get the manger for each user and then create a PSCustomObject. This isn’t optimal ofcourse. So I sent Dmitry a DM asking what is the optimal way of retrieving manager in an ODATA query. That’s when he explained that the Beta version supports the $expand option in the ODATA query.

Quick side step: Microsoft Graph supports ODATA queries, not all queries are supported yet, it’s a work in progress. ODATA is definitely something to look into… Here’s a link to get you started… Transformative change… 😉

Alright, so the /Beta returned  quite a bit more than I bargained for, but at least I didn’t have to do multiple queries. That’s when I decided to trying something new… JMESPath Query!


While using az I noticed a link to JMESpath query, what’s that?  JMESPath is a query language for JSON. With it, you can extract and transform elements from a JSON document… Sweet! Kinda like what we do with PSCustomObject, just on JSON. Here’s where having a Mac wasn’t a liability after all… I even found a vscode extension for jmespath queries! Many ways to Rome… Transformative change… (Jeffrey Snover was right, you need to rethink the way you think about things)

Using this query on the JSON document gave me the following results:

value[].{DisplayName: displayName, GivenName: givenName, SurName: surname, Department: department, JobTitle: jobTitle, Manager:manager.displayName, Location:officeLocation}


Alright! Prototyping mission accomplished! What I thought was straight forward had quite a few curves, but I wouldn’t have it any other way!

Take away:

Learn to love Graph! Be open to learning new and interesting way to accomplish tasks in a new way. Transformative change  won’t be easy, but it’ll be worth it!!!

Hope it’s worth something to you…


Urv Slides & Code

I had the pleasure of presenting at recently. PSDay uk was sponsored by Ticketmaster and G-Research in London. I presented the following topic:

PowerShell Classes for Ops transitioning to Dev

I’ve been fascinated by PowerShell classes since its introduction in v5. When Rob Sewell ask me to do a session at the, I didn’t have to think too long about the topic 🙂

I’ll be honest that the first 5 minutes was kinda nerve wrecking. I wasn’t nervous at first until I stood there and had some kind of outer-body experience…

Holy crap this is really happening!!! Calm down Urv… Whooza… Get to the code…

Once I got settled in, my nerves calmed down…

The code is bases on an interaction I had with Jaap Brasser (The legend himself 😉 ) on his blog a while back. At first I thought I didn’t have enough code but it all timed-out perfectly in the end.

Here’s the link to the code & presentation.

Shout out to Doug Finke for taking the time to break down classes for me. Doug is a true Developer and an great guy! I truly believe that the right people are placed in our paths when we need them most. Yet only if we remain open-minded and willing to learn can these mentors help us reach new levels of development. I can’t thank you enough Doug, your contribution to the community is plain awesome! You make me want to be a better coder!

Thank you for this great experience! Til’ next time? 😛




Protecting output content from prying eyes

Sup PSHomies,

Security is on everyone’s mind these days. It’s no wonder, with GDPR  going in effect as of may 2018.  My quick take on GDPR? It’s just Data Protection & ILM (Information Life-cycle Management) with some serious penalty consequences.  That archiving solution isn’t looking that expensive anymore eh? Having a RBAC model in place makes a whole lot of sense right about now huh? But I digress…

I get asked a lot to create reports. GDPR made me stop and reflect on how well (or maybe not so well) I’m handling/sharing these reports. Let’s just say I didn’t give myself a high score…

So my next challenge is about security, how do I keep prying eyes off my data? How do I make sure only the intended audience has access to the data?

First thing that came to mind was encryption. Come to find out that PowerShell v5 has some new cmdlets, Protect/Unprotect-CMSMessage,for this very purpose! Keith Hill has an excellent blog about getting started with them (seriously how did I miss this???). Oh and be sure to read Dave Wyatt’s comment.

Another must read blog is that of Cyber Defense. I tried the code and was able  to recreate the limitations, errors and performance issues. I also tried exporting to XML using Export-CliXML, but that gave me some issues with UTF8 encoding.  I was able to protect a 500 MB file, but unable to unprotect it. Found yet another great tip on Compressing files using the 7zip Module (Could it get any better???) The cmdlets are great for encrypting simple text.

Best route for protecting your data is to encrypt your password and use that password to protect your data as a zip file. Here’s what I came up with…

Let’s break down the function. First you’re going to need the public key of the intended party. Keith’s blog covers how to do that. The function will generate a 100 random char password, encrypt it and save it to specified file. Last but not least it will also return said Password as a Credential object. This will be used later on to password protect the zip file.

This will at least protect you data from prying eyes. Like Dave said in his comment:

“Anyone with admin access to a computer, or physical access to an unencrypted hard drive, can steal those private keys in most cases.”

It’s not fool-proof but it’s a start…

Take away

Make sure you’re not the weakest link when it comes to security and protecting/sharing data. Make sure you understand your company’s GDPR compliance policies. I’m seeing quite a few Security officer job offers on LinkedIn if that’s your thing… 😉

One more blog I can definitely recommend reading is David das Neves blog on Powershell Security at Enterprise customers . Granted it’s quite the read but well worth it!

Ok, there’s just one more blog you should also read, Don Jones’ blog on stop using self-signed certificates

It’s going to be a challenge for all of us, but one well worth it…

Hope it’s worth something to you…



The lowdown on SIDHistory

Sup’ PSHomies,

SIDHistory is one of those Active Directory attributes you love to hate. When migrating from one domain to another, it let’s you retain access to resources in the Source Domain. This is a great way to transition, but in my experience it also makes for quick-shift migrations.

The first thing I do whenever we start a migration is have a look at SIDHistory. This will let me know quickly what we’re dealing with:

  • Has there been a previous migration? (I’ve seen objects in excess of 5 entries)
  • Did they clean up? (Obviously they didn’t or I wouldn’t see any entries)
  • Do I need to worry about Token-bloat?

Remember the blog I did about SDDL? Well SDDL deals with access based on SIDs. When a user logs on to the system, not only the new SID, but also the old SID is retrieved from the SIDHistory attribute and is added to the user’s access token and used to determine the user’s group memberships. The SIDs of the groups of which the user is a member through either the new SID or the old SID are then also added to the access token, together with any SIDHistory those groups might have.

This is also the reason tokenbloat can be an issue if it isn’t cleaned up after a migration.

So how do you find out about SIDHistory?

On the subject of removing SIDHistory

This is tricky. Having and keeping SIDHistory intact will keep many a pesky helpdesk calls at bay… But is it wise to keep it?

From a Data (Read NTFS) perspective, you’ll need to Re-Acl your data structure. If you’ve kept you NTFS ACLs (Access Control List) nice and tidy (Wait, gimme a second to catch my breath from laughing) then you’re golden! This has never been the case in all my migrations  so far. My advice when it comes to Re-Acl, is to recreate the data structure (empty) and assign the correct ACEs (Access Control Entry) to the ACLs. Maybe I need to explain what Re-acl a bit more…

Re-ACL is the process of translating SIDs on Resources. I first came across the term using Quest Migration tools. This gave me the option to:

  • add the target SID to a resource
  • replace source SID on said resource
  • remove source SID from resource if everything is working

Here are the things you need to consider for each option

Adding the targetSID to a Resource

This gives the AD Object  access without having to rely on SIDHistory. This means that once the target SID has been added you can safely clean up SIDHistory. A target SID can only be added if a valid source SID has been found. I’ve seen too many ACLs with unknown ACEs in migrations I did over the years. This does nothing to clean up those unknown ACEs. Adding a target SID will expand you ACLs, which can have an impact on processing time

Replacing the sourceSID on a Resource

This makes for a cleaner ACL. Again, this does nothing for unknown ACEs. Replacing adds the targetSID and removes the sourceSID in the same process. A bold move, reverting SIDHistory isn’t as easy a writing to other AD object attributes and for good reason.

Remove sourceSID from Resource once everything has been verified to be working

Most are quite content that everything is working and don’t bother with this. Again, if your structure is up to date, this shouldn’t be an issue. What I’ll usually hear is: “We’ll create a new structure later on and get that cleaned up…” This rarely happens…

To wrap up

SIDHistory is a great way to retain access to source Resources, just make cleanup a part of the migration (If possible).This will vastly improve tokensize and improve your security

Re-Acl only makes sense if you’re content with your current NTFS data structure. If not, then I’d suggest redefining your Data structure. It’s a chore but well worth it.

Hope it’s worth something to you…